LANGUAGE SKILLS

 CHAPTER 02

LANGUAGE SKILLS



The four basic language skills are
1.Listening
2.Speaking
3.Reading
4.Writing 
The proper sequence in language learning is Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing. In short  LSRW. The four basic skills are categorized by two parameters: 
1. The mode of communication -
a) oral 
b) written  
2. The direction of communication-
a) Receptive--receiving the message
b) Productive--producing the message


Oral
Written
Receptive
Listening
Reading
Productive
Speaking
Writing


Listening Skills: -

listening is the first language skill that we acquire in our native language. It is known as a receptive skill or oral skill or passive skill because it requires us to use our ears and brains to comprehend language. Listening skill helps to understand the characteristics of language sound. Listening is a semantic(meaningful) aspect of language.

Listening Situations:

1.Interactive:- Interactive listening situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition or slower speech from our conversation partner.

2.Non-interactive:-  Some non-interactive listening situations are listening to the radio,  TV,  films,  lectures or sermons.  In such situations, we usually don't have the opportunity to ask for clarification, slower speech or repetition.

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Speaking Skills:- 

Speaking is the second language skill that we acquire in our native language. It is known as a productive skill or oral skill or active skill because it requires us to use our vocal tract and our brains to correctly produce language through sound. Speaking is a phonetic(sound) aspect of language.

Speaking Situations:-

1.Interactive:- It includes face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition or slower speech from our conversation partner.

2.Partially Interactive:- Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a  speech to a  live audience,  where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on the faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood

3. Non-interactive:- Some speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast.

Reading Skill:- 

Reading is the third language skill that we acquire in our native language. It is known as a receptive skill or written skill or passive skill because it requires us to use our eyes and brains to comprehend the written language.Reading is a phonetic cum graphic aspect of language 
Reading    can    help    build a vocabulary   that    helps    listening comprehension at the later stages particularly
Reading can be classified in the following types

1. Silent Reading- focuses on concentration.

2. Aloud Reading- focuses on pronunciation.(best for beginners or child )

3. Intensive Reading- The learner focuses on every vocabulary and grammar to understand. It improves reading skills.  It improves active vocabulary.[active vocabulary- that  uses in real life often]

4. Extensive Reading – Learner reads easy, enjoyable books to build their reading speed and fluency. Learner attention is on the meaning not on every text. It improves passive vocabulary.[passive vocabulary- that does not use in real life often]

Writing Skill:- 

It is the fourth language skill that we acquire in our native language. 
It is known as a productive skill or written skill or active skill because it requires us to use our hands and our brains to correctly produce written symbols.
It is the graphical representation of speech sound.
The sequence of the writing process would be planning—monitoring—reviewing.
Writing is a graphic aspect of language.

Skimming and Scanning:

Skimming and Scanning are reading techniques. It helps you to find information easily and quickly. Skimming is reading a text quickly to find out the general theme of a text. Scanning is reading a text quickly to find specific information.

Previewing and Predicting:
Previewing and Predicting are pre-reading activities. Previewing means get the basic theme of a book or topic by viewing its title, image, book cover or etc. Prediction means guess what will happen next in the story by reading the initial passage of the story.
Scibbling:- It is the initial stage of writing.

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